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Plotting: time-series

This tutorial:

File I/O: Reading ASCII data

Plotting: time-series

File I/O: Reading binary data

Plotting: Maps


In this tutorial we are going to use the data we have just read from our ASCII file in File I/O: Reading ASCII data example and then plot it in a time-series.

For all plotting functionality I use pylab, which comes with the matplotlib package.

First let's load the data using the function we have created in the File I/O: Reading ASCII data example.

from courseFunctions import readCo2
# Path and file name definition
pname = ''
fname = 'CPT_CO2_dm_95_07.txt'
# Read in data
time, x, y = readCo2(pname+fname)

Using pylab we just plot data without any formatting.

from pylab import *

This is all right but we would like to have our x axis formatted to indicate dates rather than just numbers. For this we use the plot_date method of matplotlib. We create a figure object and define the layout of our axis.

fig = figure(figsize =(12., 9.),facecolor='white', edgecolor='black')
ax = fig.add_axes([0.05, 0.5, 0.85, 0.35],axisbg='white')

We convert our time object to a matplotlib time object. I call the matplotlib time object plotDate.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
st = matplotlib.dates.date2num(datetime(1950,1,1))

I plot my unfiltered data as a thin grey line and my filtered data as a thick black line.

ax.plot_date(plotDate,x, 'gray',linewidth = 1.0)
ax.plot_date(plotDate,y, 'k',linewidth = 1.5)

I want my x-axis to start on the 1-Jan 1995 and to end on the 31st of December 2007. I define 2 matplotlib dates called start_time and end_time to specify the axis-limits. If you wanted to plot data for a shorter period, you could change the definition of start_time and end_time to something else.


I now set the x-axis limits to start_time and end_time.

ax.set_xlim( time_start, time_end)

Now the trick is to use the following methods from matplotlib.dates.

from matplotlib.dates import YearLocator, MonthLocator, DateFormatter

We want to have a reference for every year and every month on our plot.

years    = YearLocator()   # every year
months   = MonthLocator()  # every month

The following defines the format for how our time is displayed on the x-axis. In this case, it will be a 4-digit year.

dateFmt = DateFormatter('%Y')

We want labels on the x-axis for each year.

# format the ticks

We can now print out the plot using the FigureCanvasAgg method.

from matplotlib.backends.backend_agg import FigureCanvasAgg as FigureCanvas
canvas = FigureCanvas(fig)

You can download the code from file plotCo2.py.

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Last Updated on Monday, 06 August 2012 17:19

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File I/O: Reading ASCII data

This tutorial:

File I/O: Reading ASCII data

Plotting: time-series

File I/O: Reading binary data

Plotting: Maps


In this tutorial we are going to try and read an ASCII file which contains concentration of C02 measured at cape Point between the 1 January 1995 and the 31st December 2007.
You can download the file here: CPT_CO2_dm_95_07.txt

The first few lines look like this:

Date All data Filtd data
01-Jan-95 #N/A #N/A
02-Jan-95 #N/A #N/A
03-Jan-95 #N/A #N/A
04-Jan-95 #N/A #N/A
15-Jan-95 357.98 357.63
16-Jan-95 357.89 357.71

So there is 1 header line. The rest consists of 3 colums seperated by tabs, with bad values assigned the #N/A character. First let's start a python session and open our data file. Then within the python interpreter we define our path and file names.

pname = ''
fname = 'CPT_CO2_dm_95_07.txt'

Then we open the file and assign a file pointer called fid to our file.

fid = open(pname+fname)

The output of fid on the prompt will give something like:
open file 'CPT_CO2_dm_95_07.txt', mode 'r' at 0xb77c3128

Now, I am going to use the readline and readlines method to read my data line by line.

# Read 1 line in header

This only read 1 line (in this case, the first line) into a variable called header.

The output of header will give me a string variable:
'Date\tAll data\tFiltd data\r\n'

Then read all data lines in one go using the readlines method

data = fid.readlines()

All my data is now stored in a list variable called data. I can check the number of rows using the len method.


Now I can go through each line to extract the variable of interest. If I just print out my 1st data row I see that each row is finished with a \r\n, which means a return and new line. I also see that each element in my rows is seperated by a tab \t


I also want to replace all the bad values "#N/A" with a "NaN". To do that I use the replace method. Here is an example for the 1st row of data

row = data[0]
row = row.replace("#N/A","NaN")

Now I remove the return and new line characters from my row

row = row.strip('\r\n')

And then I seperate my 3 variables using the tab character


The 3 elements are now stored in string variables a, b and c. I can directly convert those strings to float using the float method.


For the time variable it is more difficult. In this example, I will convert my time variable from a string to a float. I will define my time as the number of days since 1-January-1950. This is done using methods in the datetime module of python called datetime and timedelta.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta

I convert my variable a to a datetime object

datetime.strptime(a, "%d-%b-%y")

and I then convert it to the number of days since 1-Jan-1950

(datetime.strptime(a, "%d-%b-%y")-datetime(1950,1,1)).days

Let us now put it all together in a loop.

#Initialise my variables as nans of length data
tserial = ones((len(data),))*NaN
allData = ones((len(data),))*NaN
filtData = ones((len(data),))*NaN
for row in data:

    row = row.replace("#N/A","NaN")
    row = row.strip('\r\n')
    # Store time as days since 1-Jan-1950
    tserial[i]=(datetime.strptime(a, "%d-%b-%y")-datetime(1950,1,1)).days
    allData[i]= float(b)
    filtData[i] = float(c)

You can download the example code from: getCo2.py file

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Last Updated on Monday, 06 August 2012 17:22

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Marjolaine Rouault's Tutorial

Last Updated on Monday, 30 July 2012 17:25

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CHPC Introductory scientic programming school

Nov 15, 12:26 PM

A funded full-week Introductory Scientific Programming School for Science and Engineering students who wish to advance their skills in Linux (Ubuntu) and Python Programming language.

27 Nov. – 04 Dec. 2011

Hosted by the Centre for High Performance Computing (CHPC) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) at Meraka Institute and funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST).

Syllabus to be covered includes:
Full 2 day on introduction to Linux (Ubuntu) on the following topics:

Overview of Ubuntu Linux Desktop; Running commands and Getting Help; Browsing the file system; the bash shell; Standard I/O and Pipe; Users, Groups and Permissions; vi and vim Editor basics; the Linux Filesystem In-Depth; Advanced Topics in Users; Groups and Permissions; Printing; Introduction to String Processing; String Processing with Regular Expressions; Finding and Processing Files; and Investigating and Managing Processes.

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Download the full application form in MS Word format.

Download the full program for the school here

CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATIONS: 18h00 Sunday 6 November 2011

Should you wish to become one of the participants, please complete the following application form and email (with e-mail subject: CHPC Introductory Programming School) the document back to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. before the closing date. Successful candidates will be notified from 11 November 2011.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 24 July 2012 18:17

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